Monday, September 14, 2009

Vandalisme Group:

  1. Mazlan Ismail - G75690 (imazlan@epf.gov.my)
  2. Marzuki Jalaluddin - G75688 (jmarzuki@epf.gov.my)
  3. Mohd Khairul Anuar Ali - G75696 (balqis@streamyx)
  4. Afandi Talib - G75618 (afairul@yahoo.com)
  5. Siti Arinta Ahmad - G75718 (ct_ctnira@yahoo.com)

24 comments:

  1. Dear Everybody, now that you have created the blog, you can start discussing the articles each of you have read about the topic (vandalisme...). You may also discuss your research objectives and research questions before you discuss your oral presentation and written report of the topic. Be active as you have got about one more month before our next meeting. Thanks. Pn Fuzirah

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi guys Mazlan hear. I just want to share with you all about vandalism. The vandalism has been justified by Painter Gustave Courbert as destruction of monuments symbolizing war and conquest. Therefore, it is often done as an expression of contempt, creativity or both. Vandalisma is only a meaningful concept in a culture that recoginzes history and archaelogy.

    ReplyDelete
  3. hi my friend... I would like to share my sugestion in vandalisme in Malaysia with Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye (The Star 22 Jun 2009), he suggested the proposed law include provisions for community service, the number of hours to be determined by the relevant authorities, and a jail term of not more than three years, and caning for habitual offenders (more than three times), subject to the Criminal Procedure Code.

    “Hardly a week passes without reports in the media about some form of vandalism being committed on public telephones, road signs, street lighting, parks, flats and other public amenities,” he said in a statement.

    Though vandalism in Malaysia was not as severe as in countries in the West, the quantum of damage caused rendered it a serious problem that must be tackled effectively, said the vice-chairman of the Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation.

    As it is difficult for the authorities to nab the culprits red-handed, members of the public can make a citizen’s arrest on those caught in the act of vandalism and hand them over to the authorities.

    Siti Arinta G75718

    ReplyDelete
  4. Vandalisme also happened at school especially among teenagers.

    THE Education Ministry is mulling a new set of guidelines for discipline and punishing students in schools. I feel that the officials who undertook the review are more inclined to support the students than the teachers. The teachers, who must confront the students' misbehaviour daily, are being restricted in what they can do. This, I feel, will make students bolder in schools and ultimately the level of discipline will worsen. As it is, teachers are harassed by students and parents if any action is taken. Teachers' cars are scratched and broken into, and some have their homes vandalised by students.

    There is an increasing number of teachers being confronted by outsiders and warned not to take action against their friends in school.

    A discipline teacher was confronted by one of his students' brothers with his gang armed with parangs outside the school gates because he caned the student for fighting in school.

    There was also an incident where the wife of a teacher was confronted in her home by a group of students who wanted to take revenge against her husband. Luckily, her neighbours came to her rescue before anything nasty happened.

    The ministry does not have any plans to help teachers whose property is damaged and who are threatened. The only recourse available to them is to lodge a police report, but how much can the police do? They can't be protecting the teachers round-the-clock (The New Straits Times, 15 March 2006).

    Siti Arinta G75718

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hi en khairul, mazlan and Afandi..where are you?
    pls discation in the group. We not have a long time.

    siti

    ReplyDelete
  6. hi guys , I want to share with you all......

    VANDALISM is a perpetual problem in most public housing projects (projek
    perumah rakyat or PPR).
    The damage done ranges from graffiti on walls to more serious harm
    to public utilities such as fire hoses and hydrants, lifts, electricity fuse
    boxes and even metal fixtures.
    It is learnt that City Hall spends several million ringgit a year on repairs
    to the PPR units and the rising expenditure is a major cause of concern.
    Datuk Bandar Datuk Mohmad Shaid Mohd Taufek said City Hall had tried
    advising PPR residents on living together harmoniously and responsibly.
    "Induction courses were held for them before relocating them to the
    flats. They were taught the different living standards at the flats," he said.
    The mayor said" the residents' mentality still had not changed and there
    was a-lack of responsibility on their side.
    "These residents have to change their attitude to suit the environment.
    "This is important as the modern amenities are for their own convenience,"
    he said.
    According to a source, the lack of responsibility has indeed made it difficult
    for the residents, especially the old and invalid.
    "We have had cases where the elderly had to be carried up several flights
    of stairs due to a vandalised lift," said the source.
    Many lifts have missing buttons, lamps and, of late, metal panels which
    fetch a high price at scrap yards.
    "At times the lifts are totally removed, thus multiplying the hazard for other
    residents.
    "We now have a City Hall technical teilm overseeing such damages.
    "The team also stocks up on spare parts to operate the lifts," said the source,
    adding that the parts were expensive and paid with taxpayers' money.
    Vandalised fire hoses have also cost lives.
    "Sometimes the taps are stolen, but in extreme cases the whole hose is
    stolen," said the source.
    Acts of vandalism fall under the Vandalism By-Law (Federal Territory Kuala
    Lumpur) 1991 by-law. A person found guilty of vandalism can be fined up to
    RM2,OOO or face a maximum one year jail term.
    Apart from vandalism, the source said other common crimes in flats were
    gangsterism, gang-fights and motorcycle thefts.
    He added that flats in Sentul and Cheras were among the problematic
    areas with the most crime cases.
    Cheras deputy police chief Supt Aman Hussain said the district police was
    aware of the problems and the specific crimes at public housing areas, namely
    the Desa Tun Razak flats.
    "I know that over the past few years, the area has become notorious for certain
    crimes and due to this we are playing a more pro-active role in the area," he said,
    adding that the Desa Tun Razak PPR comes directly under the jurisdiction of the
    Cheras district police.
    Most of the crimes reported in these areas are motorcycle thefts and fights.
    Supt Arnan said the district police, together with the respective residents'
    committees had been constantly involved in organising meetings with the residents
    on these problems.
    "The police understand the need to help and educate these former squatters on
    the concept of living together and being responsible.
    "We can't just pinpoint the Desa Tun Razak PPR as being a problem area as similar
    crimes exist in other PPRs within the Klang ValIey," he said.
    Supt Aman, who has personally visited the PPRs in his district on many occasions,
    believed that such crimes were due to the high-density living conditions in the PPRs.
    In Desa Tun Razak PPR, for example, more than 1,800 families are cramped into six
    blocks of flats.
    "Before the squatters were relocated, most of them had ample land.
    "The youth could have regular activities. Now they are located in smaller high-rise
    units where the chances of mixing with bad hats are higher," he said. ( The Star 2 Nov 2004 )

    Mazlan Ismail G75690

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello friends, I just want to add the article from Siti Arinta........

    The Star Online, Friday Nov 9,2004 Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye said......

    VANDALISM is posing a major threat to our social fabric and well-being of the people.
    Hardly a week passes without reports in the media about some form of vandalism being committed on public telephones, street lighting, public parks, or housing flats.
    In many local authority areas, even manhole covers and aluminium signages are not spared.
    This wanton destruction of public property is a stark reminder to the authorities that more effective action must be taken to tackle vandalism in our midst.
    Local authorities have to spend millions of ringgit annually to repair public amenities and property that had been vandalised.
    Acts of vandalism abound in every nook and corner of the country. Public phones, garbage bins, lifts, parking meters, bus shelters, public signboards and public toilets are targets.
    Though vandalism in Malaysia is not as severe as in many countries in the West, the quantum of damage renders it a serious problem that must be tackled effectively.
    According to psychiatrists, there are several categories of vandals, which include teenagers who are influenced by negative peer pressure, graffiti crawlers who leave messages in public and private property, frustrated groups who vandalise to vent their anger, drug addicts who vandalise to remove items for sale, and habitual offenders.
    It is recognised that vandalism must be tackled via education, inculcation of good values, social responsibility, and civic consciousness.
    However, education alone is not sufficient; it must be backed up by stringent legislation and strong enforcement.
    Vandalism by-laws enforced by the various local authorities are inadequate to rid the nation of this problem.
    There is a need for a new federal legislation to deal with this problem through compulsory community service to shame the culprits, as well as provision to cane habitual offenders.
    The time has come for a Vandalism Act to be introduced to allow heavier fines and compulsory community service. This can be done now that Article 6 of the Federal Constitution, which prohibits forced labour, was amended several years ago.
    The proposed Vandalism Act should provide for:
    > Those who commit any act of vandalism shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to compulsory community service in addition to a fine not exceeding RM2,000.
    > For habitual offenders (more than three times), those guilty of offences shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years and shall also, subject to the Criminal Procedure Code, be punished with caning.
    As it is difficult for the authorities to nab the culprits red-handed, members of the public can make a citizen’s arrest on those caught in the act of vandalising public property.


    Mazlan Ismail G75690

    ReplyDelete
  8. City Hall may provide venue for the vandals.

    Hi friends, this article we can refer how to handle the vandals.....

    Mayor Datuk Abdul Ghani Rashid regretted the increasing cases of vandalism in the State Capital, saying this was the work of people venting their frustrations on public properties.
    Furthermore, he said City Hall might consider providing a proper venue for them to display their graffiti "talents" instead of on public facilities.
    "I am willing to discuss this seriously if anyone from the committee could make a positive suggestion," he added.
    He disclosed that the local authorities, including City Hall, had to fork out some RM500,000 for repairs and replacements on vandalised public facilities.
    In Kota Kinabalu alone, vandalism was at its height as public toilets, bus stops, children's playgrounds, public phone booths, road signs, rubbish bins, steel manhole covers and fire hydrant covers, were not spared.
    Ghani said this while launching an exhibition on the Effects of the Vandalism, at the SugarBun exhibition hall, here Sunday, which was attended by some 200 people, including students.
    According to him, investigations showed that these were the works of frustrated people, angered by personal problems. "When a man quarrels with his girl friend, he will either rip the phone handle or kick the booth to vent his anger and frustration," Ghani added.
    He described vandalising public properties as anti-development and anti-social act as these incur wastage of public funds, and causing public inconvenience.
    He said that the objective of the exhibition was to instill public awareness against the adverse effects of vandalism.
    l To install awareness to the public how to value public property and to understand the importance of being responsible in protecting public properties from damages. l To show to the public on the importance on action by the local authorities towards resolving problem.
    l The importance of involving the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and government departments towards the success of the programme.
    l To generate interest among the younger generation and school children towards eliminating vandalism.
    "City Hall is planning to conduct a research on the effect of vandalism in collaboration with Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)," Ghani said. From Daily Express Monday Dec 13,2004.


    Mazlan Ismail G75690

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  9. In Malay Mail Monday May 11th 2009 Mr William S Thomas said.....

    HOW do we define vandalism in Malaysia? Are there any rules and regulations or laws on vandalism?
    Everyday, there is some form of vandalism to public property and those who do it usually get away for lack of evidence. However, there is one area where we can identify who the vandals are – via the advertisement stickers pasted on public property as these usually list the names of companies and their telephone numbers.
    These stickers are glued to the walls, road signages, traffic lights, trees, telephone poles, electrical poles, and culverts. They are everywhere in the city and in housing areas.
    Once in a while, we may notice some contractors scraping the stickers off the surfaces they are stuck onto and a new coat of paint is applied.
    But a few days later, we again see those stickers. If the authorities continue to allow vandals to have their way, it will result in unnecessary costs incurred to the government.
    The only way to stop the vandals is by nabbing them and then imposing a hefty fine to deter them from committing the same act.
    A possible solution is to allocate them with specific areas where they can put up their notices and stickers and what nots. For example, they can paste them on notice boards at bus stops and in other visible public spots.
    We also need enforcement officers to be strict in their dealings. The relevent authorities should start drawing out specific guidelines and ensure that they are strictly followed. They have to come out with a fair deterrent for first time offenders. Second offenders, may get a short jail term to make them realise their mistake.
    The question is, which government department is going to take the responsibility of overcoming this sort of vandalism and make our towns neat and tidy?
    It will be better for heads of departments to look seriously into this matter, for we do not want unnecessary spending of taxpayers’ money on irresponsible people who take advantage to spoil the image of this nation.

    Mazlan Ismail G75690

    ReplyDelete
  10. Guys......where are you okey. Now i want to guied how to prepare our project....


    Introdution

    The vandalism has been justified by Painter Gustave Courbert as destruction of monuments symbolizing war and conquest. Therefore, it is often done as an expression of contempt, creativity or both. Vandalisma is only a meaningful concept in a culture that recoginzes history and archaelogy.


    Definition

    Various disciplines such as psychology and sociology have examined vandalism from different perspectives, and it is difficult to reach consensus on a definition. Nevertheless, some of the definitions have common elements, such as: "an intentional act aimed at damaging or destroying an object that is another's property" (Moser, 1992); "a voluntary degradation of the environment with no profit motive whatsoever, the results of which are considered damage by the actor(s) as well as the victim in relation to the norms that govern the situation" (Goldstein, 1996, p. 19); and "the willful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of property without the consent of the owner" (Casserly, Bass, & Garrett, 1982, p. 4). Most of the definitions highlight intentionality, destructiveness, and property ownership. This form of destructive behavior is thus motivated not by profit but by other factors. Cohen (1984) suggests that acts of vandalism are motivated by anger, boredom, catharsis, erosion of alrea dy damaged objects, or aesthetic factors.

    Mazlan Ismail G75690

    ReplyDelete
  11. How to reduce the vandals in Malaysia

    The guide discusses the following aspects of environmental design and how they might be applied to reduce vandalism:
    • Access & movement
    places with well-defined routes, spaces and entrances provide for convenient movement without compromising security.
    • Structure
    places that are laid out so that crime is discouraged and so that different uses do not cause conflict.
    • Surveillance
    places where all publicly accessible spaces are overlooked
    • Ownership
    places that promote a sense of ownership, respect, territorial responsibility and community
    • Physical protection
    places that include necessary, well-designed security features
    • Activity
    places where the level of human activity is appropriate to the location and creates a reduced risk of crime and a sense of safety at all times
    • Management and maintenance
    places that are designed with management and maintenance in mind, to discourage crime in the present and the future
    Providing young people with educational and diversionary activities and equipping them with key basic skills - whilst ensuring that a robust framework of penalties exists - is an important step in addressing vandalism, and offending more widely. Not only are there large similarities in the underlying factors across a number of crime types, but crimes such as vandalism - if not dealt with early on - could potentially lead to the development of more serious criminal behaviour.
    • Sports based activities and programmes
    When asked why they had committed vandalism, 23% of offenders cited boredom, and a further 18% 'for the buzz'. It is important that young people are able to channel their energies positively. In addition to managed programmes, there is also a need for recreational facilities for teenagers that are free and available to use at all times, because venues for organised activities are not open all day or may request a charge for use. This could include open spaces, where young people can play ball games and ride bikes without disturbing others.
    • Arts based activities and programmes
    As with sports based activities, arts programmes can increase a young person's sense of self esteem and confidence, as well as developing important team-working and communication skills.
    • Youth shelters
    Shelters provide an area for young people to congregate (so seating is important) thereby concentrating litter, noise etc. ideally in an area where it is going to cause the least problem to others. Shelters vary from the very basic to venues with sporting facilities, such as a kick wall or a basketball hoop.
    • Educational programmes
    Recreational facilities should not be seen as definitive solutions in themselves. Rather, they should accompany strategies to combat such factors as educational and social exclusion, or alcohol and drug dependency, as these are often common to young offenders. It is important that those who have fallen out of the school system - through, for example, truancy and exclusion - remain engaged and inspired, so they are less likely to commit criminal offences.

    • Restorative justice
    Restorative justice can be an effective means of helping young people who have committed criminal damage better understand and appreciate the concerns of the victim, and the impact on society of their actions. This can include direct or community reparation.

    Guys the article i just want to share only. If you are things this matters can helps us then we can going on.....

    Mazlan Ismail G75690

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  12. Couses the vandals in Malaysia

    1. To get something like money
    2. To express ideas and belief
    3. To express one happines forwards specifie individual or organization
    4. To fulfill one satisfaction or enjoyment
    5. To be accepted as friend or admitted into the group
    5. they like to show their own creativity on the public property.


    Okey guys you all things about it........i want go to sleep.


    Mazlan Ismail G75690

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  13. Sorry Conclusion


    Mazlan Ismail G75690

    ReplyDelete
  14. ello guys wake up give your comment and suggestion how to prepare power point for presentation next week.


    Mazlan

    ReplyDelete
  15. Dear everybody in vandalisme group and honourable pn,Fuzirah
    I would like to apologize for not given any contribution yet to this work group.Insyaallah i will try my best to share my opinion on vandalisme among adolescent in malaysia.let me try to gather as much info as posible so that i can give valuable input to the group.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Dear everybody in vandalisme group and honourable pn,Fuzirah
    I would like to apologize for not given any contribution yet to this work group.Insyaallah i will try my best to share my opinion on vandalisme among adolescent in malaysia.let me try to gather as much info as posible so that i can give valuable input to the group.

    khairul
    p/s please ignore nurul's coment

    ReplyDelete
  17. vandalisme is not just happening in malaysia but this a global issue so what need to be done is to identify the root causes for the teenagers to commit vandalisme.
    sometimes vandalisme also committed by adults for whatever reason
    we as grow up sometimes indirectly contributed to this bad attitude of these teenagers so let us together discuss factors that made these teenagers behave as such and how to resolve the problem.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Assalamualaikum...

    At the same time the vandalisme can also involve bully especially student. I give that article for information:-

    Schools have an important role to play in protecting children from violence. For many children, though, educational settings not only expose them to violence but may also teach them violence. They are exposed to corporal punishment, cruel and humiliating forms of psychological punishment, sexual and gender-based violence, as well as bullying.

    HELP University College’s Professor Datin Noran Fauziah bt. Yaakub and Dr. Goh Chee Leong share their thoughts on the impact of bullying on children and the urgent need to end violence in schools.

    KUALA LUMPUR, 3 July 2007 - “Recent cases of school bullying have become a cause for concern in Malaysia. One of the more appalling incidents of bullying that stunned the nation was the brutal assault of a 16-year-old student by his school seniors in 2005 which led to his death. This case and others like it have raised public concern about violence in Malaysian schools. The Minister of Education has warned bullies, in a public statement, that strong action will be meted out against them and rightly declared that bullying was “not acceptable.”

    “It is important to understand that bullying may not necessarily only take the form of physical violence. The more common and destructive form of bullying in Malaysian schools is psychological in nature. If ‘violence’ is defined as the intentional act of hurting another person, then non-physical bullying represents a form of emotional and social violence. Many societies tend to focus on physical bullying while ignoring and downplaying psychological forms of bullying. This is a dangerous and an irresponsible stance to take given that both forms of bullying lead to genuine suffering on the part of the victim.

    Effects of bullying

    “Emotionally, victims of bullying often suffer feelings of great distress and fear whenever they are in school. This makes it difficult for victims to engage in the process of education. The overwhelming fear victims experience can also lead to absenteeism from school in an attempt to escape the bullying.

    “According to expert reports, victims of bullying often experience self doubt and a drop in self esteem. Many victims blame themselves for the bullying behavior, believing that it is their inherent weakness or incompetence that contributes to them being picked on by the bullies.

    “Some victims of bullying harbor intense anger and bitterness towards bullies and the social cliques that condone and support bullying behavior. This anger, if unresolved, may lead to victims becoming bullies themselves with younger children, and are classified as bully-victims. Others may express their anger in anti-social behavior like vandalism and theft (UNICEF MALAYSIA).

    SITI ARINTA G75718

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  19. Hello guys
    how is your preparation for the presentation on vandalisme this coming sunday class,are you guys ready?

    for your info,in this coming class we need to present the following topics on vandalisme:
    1. meaning of vandalisme among adolescent.
    2. factors that contribute to vandalisme.
    3. how to overcome the vandalisme issue.
    4. other issue

    so let us start searching for as many article as possible.....see u tomorrow

    ReplyDelete
  20. 1.meaning of Vandalism
    based on wikipedi vandalisme is the behaviour attributed to the Vandals, by the Romans, in respect of culture: ruthless destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or venerable. Such action includes criminal damage, defacement, graffiti and crass erection of an eyesore

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  21. assalamulaikum guys,

    information for everbody, discussion and preparation powerpoint for presentation sunday class.tomorrow night at bangi

    ReplyDelete
  22. Kajian ini dijalankan adalah bertujuan untuk melihat faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkah laku vandalisme di kalangan pelajar lelaki di negeri Melaka. Kajian ini merupakan kajian lapangan yang dijalankan di lima buah sekolah menengah di daerah Alor Gajah, Melaka. Subjek kajian adalah seramai 120 orang yang terdiri daripada pelajar tingkatan 4 dan 5. Soal selidik yang digunakan mengandungi enam bahagian iaitu maklumat diri subjek, jenis-jenis tingkah laku vandalisme, faktor keluarga, sekolah, rakan sebaya dan konsep kendiri. Data analisis menggunakan Kaedah Statistical Package for the Social Science – Extra (SPSS – X). Keputusan yang diperolehi menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan tingkah laku vandalisme dengan tingkat pendapatan ibu bapa. Bagaimanapun, kajian menunjukkan perbezaan dalam tahap pendidikan ibu bapa mempengaruhi tingkah laku vandalisme di kalangan pelajar. Hasil kajian ini juga menunjukkan bahawa tidak terdapat perhubungan bagi faktor rakan sebaya, faktor keluarga, sekolah dan konsep kendiri dengan tingkah laku vandalisme di kalangan pelajar sekolah.

    ReplyDelete
  23. This research was done to look into the factors influencing vandalisme among the male students in Malacca. This research is an open research done in the Alor Gajah district in Malacca. The research subjects consist of 120 students from among Form 4 and Form 5 students. Questionnaires used included subject’s personal details, types of vandalisme, family, school peers factor and also self-concept. Data analysis used statistical package Method for the Social Science-Extra (SPSS-X). Result gained showed no effect of parents’ income scale with vandalisme. Instead research showed differences in parents’ education level has on effect on vandalisme occurring among students. The result of the research also showed that there was no relation to peer, family, school and self-concept factors for vandalisme occurring among school students.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Assalamualaikum...

    Ok guys, i like to share articel about causes of vandalism from http://law.jrank.org/pages/11065/vandalism.html

    The intentional destruction of property is popularly referred to as vandalism. It includes behavior such as breaking windows, slashing tires, spray painting a wall with graffiti, and destroying a computer system through the use of a computer virus. Vandalism is a malicious act and may reflect personal ill will, although the perpetrators need not know their victim to commit vandalism. The recklessness of the act imputes both intent and malice.

    Because the destruction of public and private property poses a threat to society, modern statutes make vandalism a crime. The penalties upon conviction may be a fine, a jail sentence, an order to pay for repairs or replacement, or all three. In addition, a person who commits vandalism may be sued in a civil tort action for damages so that the damaged property can be repaired or replaced.

    Vandalism is a general term that may not actually appear in criminal statutes. Frequently, these statutes employ the terms criminal mischief, malicious mischief, or malicious trespass as opposed to vandalism. A group of individuals can be convicted of conspiring or acting concertedly to commit vandalism. Generally, the attempt to commit vandalism is an offense as well, but the penalties for attempted vandalism are not as severe as the penalties for a completed act. Penalties also depend on the value of the property destroyed or the cost of repairing it.

    To obtain a conviction the prosecution must ordinarily prove that the accused damaged or destroyed some property, that the property did not belong to the accused, and that the accused acted willfully and with malice. In the absence of proof of damage, the defendant may be guilty of TRESPASS, but not vandalism. If there is no proof that the defendant intentionally damaged the property, the defendant cannot be convicted of the crime but can be held liable for monetary damages in a civil action.

    Some state statutes impose more stringent penalties for the destruction of certain types of property. Such statutes might cover the desecration of a church or synagogue, the destruction of

    Workers in Pittsburgh examine spray-painted vandalism on a statue of Christopher Columbus. Though political demonstrators may exercise their freedom of speech, doing so through the defacement of public property can lead to conviction.
    AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS
    jail or prison property by inmates, and the intentional destruction of property belonging to a public utility.

    Destructive acts will not be excused merely because the defendants acted out of what they thought was a noble purpose. Political demonstrators may exercise their FIRST AMENDMENT rights of FREEDOM OF SPEECH and FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND ASSEMBLY, but if they deface, for example, government property with spray-painted slogans, they can be convicted of vandalism.

    The peak period for committing relatively minor property crimes is between the ages of fifteen and twenty-one. In the United States adolescent vandalism, including the wanton destruction of schools, causes millions of dollars of damage each year. Apprehending vandals is often difficult, and the costs of repairing the damage are passed on to taxpayers, private property owners, and insurance companies. Some states hold parents financially responsible for vandalism committed by their minor children, up to specified limits. These statutes are designed to encourage parental supervision and to shift part of the cost of vandalism from the public to the individuals who are best able to supervise the children who destroyed the property.


    Read more: http://law.jrank.org/pages/11065/Vandalism.html#ixzz0WM0zItXL

    Siti Arinta Ahmad G75718

    ReplyDelete